1.3. Adding fiber grating couplers

Adding fiber grating couplers to the MZI is now very simple. As done before with the Y-Branch and the waveguides, we need to:

  1. Instantiate the correct fiber grating coupler from the IPKISS PDK for SiEPIC
  2. Add the grating couplers to the list of child_cells
  3. Connect the grating couplers to the Y-Branches using joins
  4. Flip the output grating coupler in place_specs
  5. Update the external port names, as the vertical ports of the grating couplers are now the input and output of our circuit
Listing 1.45 luceda-academy/training/topical_training/siepic_mzi_ybranch/example_mzi_fgc.py
# 1. First, we instantiate the Y-branch from the SiEPICfab PDK.
splitter = pdk.EbeamY1550()
splitter_tt = splitter.Layout().ports['opt2'].trace_template

# 2. We instantiate the waveguides we will use for the arms of the MZI.
straight_length = 200.
delay_length = 20.0
bump_angle = get_angle(straight_length=straight_length, delay_length=delay_length, initial_angle=10.0)

wg_straight = pdk.WaveguideStraight(wg_length=straight_length, trace_template=splitter_tt)
wg_bump = pdk.WaveguideBump(x_offset=straight_length, angle=bump_angle, trace_template=splitter_tt)

# 3. We instantiate the fiber grating coupler.
fgc = pdk.EbeamGCTE1550()

# 4. We define the child cells of our circuit. We have 2 Y-branches, one bump waveguide and one straight waveguide.
child_cells = {
    "yb_1": splitter,
    "yb_2": splitter,
    "wg_up": wg_bump,
    "wg_down": wg_straight,
    "fgc_1": fgc,
    "fgc_2": fgc

# 5. We define the joins (list of tuples), which contain all the ports to be snapped to each other.
joins = [
    ("fgc_1:opt1", "yb_1:opt1"),
    ("yb_1:opt2", "wg_up:pin1"),
    ("wg_up:pin2", "yb_2:opt2"),
    ("yb_1:opt3", "wg_down:pin1"),
    ("wg_down:pin2", "yb_2:opt3"),
    ("yb_2:opt1", "fgc_2:opt1")

# 6. We define specs, containing all the transformations that apply to each component.
place_specs = [
    i3.Place("yb_1:opt1", (0, 0)),

# 7. We define the names of the external ports that we want to access.
external_port_names = {
    "fgc_1:fib1": "in",
    "fgc_2:fib1": "out"

# 8. We instantiate the CircuitCell class to create the circuit.
mzi = CircuitCell(

1.3.1. Layout and circuit simulation

We can now instantiate the layout of the circuit, visualize it, save it to GDSII and simulate it in IPKISS. You can see that the typical Gaussian behaviour of the fiber grating couplers is automatically taken into account in the result of the circuit simulation.

Listing 1.46 luceda-academy/training/topical_training/siepic_mzi_ybranch/example_mzi_fgc.py
# Layout
mzi_layout = mzi.Layout()

# Circuit model
mzi_cm = mzi.CircuitModel()
wavelengths = np.linspace(1.52, 1.58, 4001)
S_total = mzi_cm.get_smatrix(wavelengths=wavelengths)

# Plotting
plt.plot(wavelengths, 20 * np.log10(np.abs(S_total['out:0', 'in:0'])), '-', linewidth=2.2, label="TE transmission")
plt.xlabel('Wavelength [um]', fontsize=16)
plt.ylabel('Transmission [dB]', fontsize=16)
plt.legend(fontsize=14, loc=4)
Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Mach-Zehnder interferometer